Strategies for Protein Purification – Soluble Extracellular Proteins
The source of soluble extracellular proteins is the extracellular medium, whether it could be an animal source such as blood or spinal fluid, or a culture medium in which bacterial, fungal, animal, or plant cultures have been grown. Generally these do not contain a large number of different proteins (blood is an exception), and the desired protein may be a major component, especially if produced as the result of recombinant expression. Nonetheless, the protein in the starting material may be quite dilute, and a large volume may therefore need to be processed. The starting fluid may also contain many compounds other than proteins, whose behavior must be taken into account. The first stage should aim mainly to reduce the volume and get rid of as much nonprotein material as possible; some protein-protein separation is also useful, but not essential. No general rules can be given, but a batch adsorption method using an inexpensive material such as hydroxyapatite, ion-exchange resin, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) medium, or affinity adsorbent is best, if feasible. Following the first step, the sample should be in a form that is amenable to standard purification processes such as precipitation and column chromatography.