Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) stimulates bone and cartilage growth naturally in human body. It participates in hedgehog pathway, TGF beta signaling pathway and cytokine-cytokine receptors interaction. For clinical use, Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is produced through recombinant DNA technology, so called recombinant BMP-2.
Structure of Active BMP-2
In the article of “The crystal structure of the BMP-2…”, a complex of BMP-2 and the ectodomain of BMPR-IA was formed in solution, purified, and crystallized as described, which show the dimer of rhBMP-2 has the biological activity.
Applications and Side Effects
Recombinant human protein (rhBMP-2) is currently available for orthopaedic usage. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Implant Dentistry in particular have benefited dramatically from commercially available BMP-2. Especially, it stimulates spinal fusion which is as well as or better than using patient’s own bone. However, it is not fully understood how the BMP-2 works and what the other side effects are (FDA only approved the anterior lumbar interbody fusion, one type of the spinal fusion).